Self-discharge Mechanism of ZTT Supercap

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What do you know about the self-discharge mechanism of the ZTT supercapacitor? It mainly includes three categories: leakage current, Faraday reaction, and charge redistribution.

First of all, there are two main causes of leakage current:

  • The parasitic reaction between electrolyte and electrode material;
  • Internal short circuit caused during supercapacitor assembly.

Secondly, the Faraday reaction is also the redox reaction. It mainly comes from the oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of carbon-based electrode materials and the dissolving oxygen in the electrolyte. Oxygen-containing functional groups will weaken the interaction force between electrolyte ions and the surface of electrode materials. Meanwhile, the oxygen will consume the charge stored in the electric double layer in the form of reduction. Thereby inducing and accelerating self-discharge. The different concentrations of reactants divide Faradaic reactions further into activation-controlled Faradaic reactions and diffusion-controlled Faradaic reactions.

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(Self-discharge mechanism of ZTT supercap)

Finally, charge redistribution means fully charging the supercapacitor and then removing the external power source. Then, the charge stored on the surface of the electrode material does not have enough time to diffuse uniformly into the internal pores. Thus, most of the charge is only concentrated in the electrode material. Between the outer surface and the pore, these charges will spontaneously diffuse to the inside of the pore under the action of the concentration difference, resulting in a spontaneous voltage drop.

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